Transplantation in Turkey and region




organ transplantation, history of transplantation, transplant tourism


The article provides insight into significant milestones in the history of organ transplantation in Turkey and region.

In 1975, we were the first in Turkey to perform living‑related kidney transplantation and, in 1978, deceased‑donor kidney transplantation, using an organ supplied by Eurotransplant. In 1979, the law on harvesting, storage, grafting, and transplantation of organs and tissues was enacted. The first local deceased‑donor kidney transplantation was performed by our team in 1979. The first successful deceased‑donor liver transplantation, which was a groundbreaking surgery procedure for Turkey, the Middle East and Northern Africa, was carried out by our team in 1988. In 1990, we were the first not only in Turkey but also in the Middle East region as well as Europe to perform pediatric living‑related segmental liver transplantation. One month later, an adult‑to‑adult living‑related liver transplant (a left lobe) was successfully performed for the first time in the history of organ transplantation. On May 16, 1992, we carried out the first combined liver‑kidney transplantation from a living‑related donor, which was the first operation of its kind in the world. Between November 1975 and October 2021, we performed 3,256 kidney transplantations at Hacettepe University Hospitals  . Since 1988 to date, we have carried out 695 liver transplantations at Baskent University. According to the registry of the Ministry of Health, from 2002 to 2021, 46,115 kidney transplants were performed nationwide, as compared with 17,868 liver transplants, 1,153 heart transplants and 198 pancreas transplants. In 2001, the Ministry of Health established the National Coordination Center as an umbrella organization to promote transplantation activities, especially deceased‑donor organ procurement. Despite constantly increasing overall living‑donor transplant rate across the country, overall deceased‑donor transplant rate is still far below the desired level.


Author Biography

M. Haberal, Baskent University

MD, FACS (Hon), FICS (Hon), FASA (Hon), FIMSA (Hon), Hon FRCS (Glasg)


Haberal M, Moray G, Karakayali H, Bilgin N. Ethical and legal aspects, and the history of organ transplantation in Turkey. Transplant Proc. 1996;28(1):382-3.

Haberal M, Moray G, Karakayali H, Bilgin N. Transplantation legislation and practice in Turkey: a brief history. Transplant Proc. 1998;30(7):3644-6.

Haberal M, Bilgin N, Sanaç Y, Güre A, Bor N. Köpekte Baypas Kullanılmadan Yapılan Ortotopik Karaciğer Homotransplantasyonu. Hacettepe Tıp/Cerrahi Bülteni 1972;5(4):462-74.

Haberal M, Buyukpamukcu N, Saatci U et al. Kidney transplantation. In: Abstracts of the 1st National Dialysis and Transplant Meeting of Turkey. Bursa, Turkey, June 4-6, 1980. Kidney International. 1981;19(1):103-5, January 1, 1981.

Haberal M, Sert S, Aybasti N, et al. Living Donor Kidney Transplantation. Transplant Proc. 1988;20(1 Suppl 1):353-5.

Haberal M. Development of Transplantation in Turkey. Transplant Proc. 2001;33(7-8):3027-9.

Haberal M, Oner Z, Cakmakci M, Turan M. Long term graft survival of imported cadaver kidneys. In: Abstracts of the The XIInd Congress of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association—European Renal Association Brussels, Belgium June 25—29, 1985. Kidney International. 1985;28(2):376, August 1, 1985.

Haberal M, Gulay H, Arslan G, Bilgin N. Cadaver kidney transplantation with prolonged cold ischemia time. Transplant Proc. 1988;20(1 Suppl 1):932-4.

Tokyay R, Hamaloglu E, Velidedeoglu E, Bilgin N, Haberal M. Excellent results with imported cadaveric kidneys. Transplant Proc. 1992;24(5):1844-5.

Haberal M, Gulay H, Arslan G, et al. Cadaver kidney transplantation with cold ischemia time from 48 to 95 hours. Transplant Proc. 1984;16(5):1330-2.

Haberal M, Aybasti N, Arslan G, Bilgin N. Cadaver kidney transplantation cases with a cold ischemia time of more than 100 hours. Clin Transpl. 1986;126-7.

Haberal M, Sert S, Aybasti N, et al. Cadaver kidney transplantation cases with a cold ischemia time of over 100 hours. Transplant Proc. 1987 Oct;19(5):4184-8.

Haberal M, Demirag A, Cohen B, et al. Cadaver kidney transplantation in Turkey. Transplant Proc. 1995; 27(5):2768-9.

Haberal M, Gülay H, Büyükpamukçu N, et al. Liver transplantation in Turkey. Transplant Proc. 1991;23(5):2563-5.

Haberal M, Tokyay R, Telatar H, et al. Living related and cadaver liver transplantation. Transplant Proc. 1992;24(5):1967-9.

Haberal M, Gülay H, Karpuzoğlu T, et al. Multiorgan harvesting from heart-beating donors in Turkey. Transplant Proc. 1991;23(5):2566-7.

Haberal M, Kaynaroğlu V, Bilgin N. Ethics in organ procurement in Turkey. Int J Artif Organs. 1992;15(5):261-3.

Raia S, Nery JR, Mies S. Liver transplantation from live donors. Lancet. 1989;2(8661):497.

Broelsch CE, Whitington PF, Emond JC, et al. Liver transplantation in children from living related donors. Surgical techniques and results. Ann Surg. 1991; 214(4):428-437; discussion 437-9.

Haberal M, Büyükpamukçu N, Telatar H, et al. Segmental living liver transplantation in children and adults. Transplant Proc. 1992;24(6):2687-9.

Haberal M, Büyükpamukçu N, Telatar H, et al. Segmental living liver transplantation as an alternative method. Gastroenterology. 1992;3(3):455-9.

Haberal M, Abbasoğlu O, Büyükpamukçu N, Bilgin N, Telatar H, Besim A. Segmental living related donor liver transplantation in childhood. Transplant Proc. 1993;24(3):2200-2.

Haberal M, Telatar H, Bilgin N. Living related liver transplantation in an adult and a child. W. Land, J. B. Dossetor (Eds.) Organ Replacement Therapy: Ethics, Justice and Commerce. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg; 1991:83-92.

Haberal M, Abbasoğlu N, Büyükpamukçu N, et al. Combined liver-kidney transplantation from a living related donor. Transplant Proc. 1993;25(3):2211-3.

Haberal M, Moray G, Bilgin N, et al. A preliminary report on heterotopic segmental living-related and/or split-liver cadaver transplantation. Transplant Proc. 1999;31:2899-901.

Haberal M, Karakayali H, Boyacioglu S, et al. Successful living-related heterotopic auxiliary liver transplantation for chronic Budd-Chiari syndrome. Transplant Proc. 1999;31:2902-3.

Haberal M, Arda IS, Karakayali H, et al. Heterotopic segmental liver transplantation in children. Transplant Proc. 2000;32:535-6.

Haberal M, Arda IS, Karakayali H, et al. Successful heterotopic segmental liver transplantation from a live donor to a patient with Alagille syndrome. Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 2001;36(4):667-71.

Haberal M, Karakayali H, Emiroglu S, et al. Heterotopic liver transplantation during adolescence. Transplant Proc. 2001;33:2832-3.

Haberal M, Emiroglu R, Arslan G, Karakayalı H, Moray G, Bilgin N. Long-term survival with heterotopic liver transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2002;34:2468-71.

Boyvat F, Aytekin C, Firat A, Harman A, Karakayali H, Haberal M. Diagnostic and therapeutic management of hepatic artery thrombosis and stenosis after orthotopic and heterotopic liver transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2003;35:2791-5.

Haberal M, Sevmis S, Karakayali H, et al. Long-term survival in a patient after heterotopic segmental auxiliary liver transplantation. Pediatr Transplantation. 2008;12:816-20.

Moray G, Torgay A, Haberal M. Baskent University Organ Transplantation Activities in Mid Asia. Exp. Clin Transplant. 2018;16(4):363-6.

Haberal, Mehmet (Ed.). Transplantation in Turkey and in our regions. Ankara, Turkey, Baskent University; 2021.