Choledochoscopy in the laparoscopic treatment of patients with choledocholithiasis: a single-centre study




choledocholithiasis, choledochoscopy, choledocholithoextraction, mechanical jaundice


Choledochoscopy is a minimally invasive procedure used for laparoscopic bile duct exploration and the removal of bile duct stones. However, there is insufficient information available about its advantages in diagnosing choledocholithiasis and its role in laparoscopic choledocholithoextraction.

Objective —  to compare the diagnostic efficacy of imaging techniques and choledochoscopy in patients with choledocholithiasis and to evaluate the role of choledochoscopy in laparoscopic choledocholithoextraction.

Materials and methods. The study examined the results of 128 patients with calculous cholecystitis and choledocholithiasis who had laparoscopic choledocholithoextraction in combination with choledochoscopy. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound, CT, and MRI in the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis, as well as the efficacy of one‑stage treatment of calculous cholecystitis and choledocholithiasis using choledochoscopy and laparoscopic choledocholithoextraction.

Results. Imaging techniques demonstrated limited sensitivity and specificity in determining the diameter and number of common bile duct stones. A total of 89 (69.5%) patients achieved complete bile duct clearance after blind laparoscopic choledocholithoextraction: 86 (81.1%) had choledochotomy, and 3 (13.6%) underwent transcystic common bile duct exploration. The combination of choledochoscopy and laparoscopic choledocholithoextraction ensured the complete removal of bile duct stones in 97.6% of patients.

Conclusions. The imaging techniques used for determining the number of common bile duct stones in choledocholithiasis had sensitivity and specificity rates of 41.4% and 92.7% for ultrasound, 72.7% and 83.3% for CT, and 86.7% and 60.9% for MRI, respectively. A total of 89 (69.5%) patients achieved complete bile duct clearance after blind laparoscopic choledocholithoextraction: 86 (81.1%) had choledochotomy, and 3 (13.6%)underwent transcystic common bile duct exploration. Choledochoscopy was required for laparoscopic choledocholithoextraction in 18.9% of choledochotomy patients and in 86.4% of those who underwent transcystic common bile duct exploration. Choledochoscopy demonstrated an overall bile duct stone clearance rate of 97.6%.


Author Biographies

Y. M. Susak, Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv

MD, ScD, Prof., Head of the Department of Surgery with a Course of Emergency and Vascular Surgery

M. V. Maksimenko, Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv

PhD, Assoc. Prof.

L. Y. Markulan, Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv

PhD, Assoc. Prof.

V. V. Volkovetskii, Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv

Senior Assistant


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Original Research